I accessed the websites listed below in 2002 and ’03, when I was researching this book. Many of the URLs are no longer valid. — DK, 2010
Given the ethics scandals that have plagued journalism in recent years, readers have a right to be skeptical of direct quotations, especially ones produced from memory a considerable time after they were supposedly uttered. For example, in Chapter One I have reproduced several direct quotes from a geneticist with whom we visited a week and a half after Becky’s birth. These quotes are reconstructed—that is, I have reproduced them as faithfully as my memory allows but cannot vouch for their complete accuracy. I have tried to keep this practice to a minimum. Nearly all of the direct quotations in this book are from interviews, most of them tape-recorded, a few based on my notes. Quotes from these interviews are verbatim, save for minor changes involving compression and syntax.
Little People of America’s definition of dwarfism has been the subject of some debate within the membership, and I have been involved in helping to tweak the language on LPA Online (www.lpaonline.org), the organization’s Web site, which I edit. Under the presidency of Matt Roloff, LPA has made it clear that someone with a dwarfism condition who is slightly taller than the four-foot-ten guideline will still be welcomed for membership.
My estimate that there are thirty thousand to fifty thousand people with some type of dwarfism living in the United States is based on an interview I conducted with Angela Muir Van Etten and Robert Van Etten, longtime activists with Little People of America. Several other knowledgeable observers agreed that that was a reasonable figure. The exact number is unknown and, in any case, would depend on the definition of dwarfism that is used.
The statistical definition of dwarfism is an adult height that is in the bottom 0.25 percent of the general population is cited by the medical anthropologist Joan Ablon in Living with Difference: Families with Dwarf Children (Praeger, 1988). Ablon’s source, in turn, is a 1978 report to the Human Growth Foundation titled Short Stature: Definition and Estimate of Short Stature in the US Population, by Thaddeus E. Kelly, Meinhard Robinow, Ann Johanson, Patricia Janku, Fran Kaiser, and W. Shep Fleet.
My estimate of the frequency of achondroplasia—somewhere between one in twenty-six thousand and one in forty thousand births—is taken from a clinical summary published by the Kathryn and Alan C. Greenberg Center for Skeletal Dysplasias, at Johns Hopkins Hospital, on the Web at http://www.med.jhu.edu/Greenberg.Center/Greenbrg.htm. This estimate has been widely accepted within the dwarf community. The estimates that eighty-five percent of the parents of dwarfs are themselves average-size, and that there are about two hundred different types of dwarfism, are frequently cited by geneticists who specialize in dwarfism. The estimate that two-thirds or more of all cases of dwarfism are caused by achondroplasia is based on conversations with geneticists and people within the dwarf community. Dr. Charles Scott, the former longtime chairman of Little People of America’s medical-advisory board, told me that approximately seventy percent of those who attend LPA conferences are achondroplastic. But he cautioned that because achons tend to be healthier and more mobile than people with other types of dwarfism, that figure may not accurately reflect the entire dwarf community.
The roots of the word achondroplasia are explained in a March of Dimes fact sheet, available at http://www.modimes.org.
The Joan Ablon quote is from her book Little People in America: The Social Dimensions of Dwarfism (Praeger, 1984). Ablon later wrote a book on the family dynamics of dwarfism, Living with Difference (cited above). Together, the two books represent the most comprehensive attempt to date to describe and explain the dwarf community.
My description of the political-activist branch of the deaf community is based in part on Edward Dolnick’s article “Deafness as Culture,” which was published in the September 1993 issue of the Atlantic Monthly.
The story of the prehistoric dwarf found wrapped in a woman’s—presumably his mother’s—arms was reported in the February 1988 edition of Scientific American in an article titled “Paleolithic Compassion,” by John Horgan; and in the November 9, 1987, issue of the Washington Post, in an article headlined “Skeleton of Dwarf Shows Ancients Cared for Disabled,” by Boyce Rensberger and Michael Specter. My description of acromesomelic dysplasia is based in part on a conversation with Peggy O’Neill, a three-foot-eight motivational speaker who has the condition and who writes about her life in Walking Tall: Overcoming Inner Smallness No Matter What Size You Are (Small Miracles Press, 2002).
Bonnie M. Sampsell’s article “Ancient Egyptian Dwarfs” was published in the Fall 2001 edition of KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt.
The anthropologist Francis E. Johnston’s article “Some Observations on the Roles of Achondroplastic Dwarfs through History” was published in the December 1963 edition of the medical journal Pediatrics.
Despite its garish style, Hy Roth and Robert Cromie’s The Little People (Everest House, 1980) contains much valuable information on the history of dwarfs and dwarfism.
The possibility that Richard III was a dwarf is discussed in the August 24, 1991, issue of the Lancet, in an unsigned article titled “Richard III: A Royal Pituitary Dwarf?”
The English dwarf Jeffrey Hudson’s life story is told in Nick Page’s book Lord Minimus: The Extraordinary Life of Britain’s Smallest Man (St. Martin’s Press, 2002).
Norbert Wolf analyzes the place of dwarfs in Velázquez’s art in his book Diego Velázquez, 1599-1600: The Face of Spain (Taschen, 1999).
The abridged title of the 1863 pamphlet on Charles and Lavinia Stratton’s marriage was Sketch of the Life, Personal Appearance, Character and Manners of Charles S. Stratton, the Man in Miniature, Known as General Tom Thumb, and His Wife, Lavinia Warren Stratton. That work, along with the autobiographical series that Lavinia Warren wrote for the New York Tribune Sunday Magazine, are both online at the Disability History Museum, http://www.disabilitymuseum.org.
I am indebted to Robert Bogdan’s Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit (University of Chicago Press, 1988) for many of the details regarding the lives of Charles and Lavinia Stratton and P. T. Barnum. Another excellent resource is the documentary film
P. T. Barnum: American Dreamer, part of the A&E “Biography” series, which I saw during my visit to the Barnum Museum, in Bridgeport, Connecticut. I also consulted Mertie E. Romaine’s General Tom Thumb and His Lady (William S. Sullwold Publishing, 1976).
The Web site that I describe concerning Alexander Katan is based in Brazil, and the text is in Portuguese. The address is http://www.internau.psi.br/ pp/mauthausen/pseudo.htm. I was able to obtain an imperfect but useful translation through Google. I have subsequently found much of the same information at other locations on the Web.
The horrors of the Mauthausen concentration camp are described on the Web sites of the Austrian government’s Mauthausen Memorial (www.mauthausen-memorial.at); the KZ Mauthausen-Gusen Info-Pages (www.gusen.org); and the “Forgotten Camps” project of a Jewish genealogical site called JewishGen.org (www.jewishgen.org/Forgotten Camps/Camps/MauthausenEng.html).
The story of William Henry “Zip” Johnson has been recounted by a number of historians. I consulted Bogdan’s Freak Show (cited on page 284) and A. H. Saxon’s P. T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man (Columbia University Press, 1989).
The lives of Sir Francis Galton and Gregor Mendel are discussed in “Building Superman,” by David Reich, in the February 10, 2002, issue of the New York Times Book Review (Reich reviewed Nicholas Wright Gillham’s biography A Life of Sir Francis Galton); and in Simon Mawer’s novel Mendel’s Dwarf (Harmony Books, 1998).
Rosemarie Garland Thomson’s essay “Seeing the Disabled: Visual Rhetorics of Disability in Popular Photography” was published in The New Disability History: American Perspectives, edited by Paul K. Longmore and Lauri Umansky (New York University Press, 2001).
I have not seen the movie The Black Stork, but both it and its bizarre impresario, Dr. Harry Haiselden, are described in The Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to Confrontation, by Doris Zames Fleischer and Frieda Zames (Temple University Press, 2001); and in Beyond Affliction: The Disability History Project, a 1998 public-radio documentary series produced by Laurie Block (founder of the online Disability History Museum), Jay Allison, and John Crowley. Both of those works, in turn, cite Martin S. Pernick’s The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of “Defective” Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915 (Oxford University Press, 1996).
Carrie Bruck’s plight—and Justice Holmes’s heartless reaction to it—are described in Joseph P. Shapiro’s No Pity: People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement (Times Books, 1993).
I relied primarily on three sources for my description of the Nazis’ sterilization and “euthanasia” programs: Robert Jay Lifton’s The Nazi Doc
tors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (Basic Books, 1986); Hugh Gregory Gallagher’s By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich (Holt, 1990); and The Mentally and Physically Handicapped: Victims of the Nazi Era, a publication of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Perla Ovitz, the central figure in the documentary Liebe Perla, was interviewed by Yehuda Koren for the Telegraph Magazine, which is based in Britain. That article was later reprinted in the November 1999 issue of Hadassah Magazine.
Gerald L. Posner and John Ware are the authors of Mengele: The Complete Story (McGraw-Hill, 1986).
Sara Nomberg-Przytyk is the author of Auschwitz: True Tales from a Grotesque Land (University of North Carolina Press, 1985).
Ursula Hegi is the author of Stones from the River (Scribner, 1994).
The Reverend Martin Marty’s thoughts on Jesus and the disabled are included in an interview he did for a book called How I Pray: People of Different Religions Share with Us That Most Sacred and Intimate Act of Faith, edited by Jim Castelli (Ballantine, 1994).
I found the Reverend John Yates’s sermon on Jesus and the disabled on the Web site of his church, the Falls Church, at http://www.thefallschurch.org/ SERMONS/1999sermons/990228jy.htm.
Hugh Gregory Gallagher writes about Jesus and the disabled in By Trust Betrayed (cited above).
I had heard that the word handicap was derived from cap in hand, and that struck me as both logical and a characteristically degrading way of thinking about the disabled. But when I started to research the etymology, I found an entry on the well-respected urban-legends Web site Snopes.com debunking that interpretation. (See http://www.snopes.com/language/offense/handicap.htm.) In addition, the American Heritage Dictionary (fourth edition, 2000) says that handicap is “[f]rom obsolete hand in cap, a game in which forfeits were held in a cap.”
Peter Hall’s and Laurie Block’s comments are taken from the radio documentary Beyond Affliction (cited on page 285).
The stories by the Bosnian refugees were told in an article by Stephen Kinzer headlined “Terrorized Human Tide Overwhelms Relief Camp,” which appeared on July 15, 1995, in the New York Times.
Although the Reverend Paul Stevens Lynn’s comments are from a telephone interview I conducted with him, I first learned about him in an article by the Reverend Alton M. Motter in the May-September 1999 issue of LPA Today, the newsletter of Little People of America.
Rabbi Harold Kushner’s When Bad Things Happen to Good People has been a phenomenon since it was first published in 1981. The twentieth-anniversary edition, issued in 2001, was published by Schocken Books.
The passage by the Reverend Forrest Church is from “Open Up to the Mystery,” published in the September-October 2000 issue of the UU World, the magazine of the Unitarian Universalist Association. I was also helped by Church’s book Life Lines: Holding on (and Letting Go) (Beacon Press, 1996), in which he offers this wonderful explanation of the difference between his (and my) thinking and that of atheists: “Unlike them, I believe in what I cannot know, the God beyond God, not omnipotent and omniscient—these are human constructs—but ineffable and inscrutable, subject neither to human description nor human understanding. When I say I believe in God, God is not God’s name. God is our name for that which is greater than all and yet present in each, a mystery that cannot be named or known.” He adds: “None of this makes sense. I know that.”
The origins of the Kaleigh Mulligan program are described in a Boston Globe article headlined “Law Aids Families with Disabled Children,” by Anne Wyman, published on December 21, 1989.
Erving Goffman lays out his analysis of stigmatized groups and individuals in Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity (Simon & Schuster, 1963).
My discussion of the history of the disability-rights movement is informed by several excellent studies. Particularly valuable is Joseph P. Shapiro’s No Pity (cited on page 285). My estimate of nearly 50 million disabled Americans is based on Shapiro, who, writing a decade earlier, placed the number somewhere between 35 million and 43 million.
Although I interviewed Paul Steven Miller, I relied on Shapiro’s No Pity in describing Miller’s representation of television anchor Bree Walker Lampley. My other secondary sources on disability rights are Doris Zames Fleischer and Frieda Zames’s The Disability Rights Movement (cited on page 285), especially for their account of the League of the Physically Handicapped; and the radio documentary Beyond Affliction (also cited on page 285). The remarks by President George H. W. Bush at the signing ceremony for the Americans with Disabilities Act are taken from a Washington Post account of July 27, 1990, headlined “In Emotion-Filled Ceremony, Bush Signs Rights Law for America’s Disabled,” by Ann Devroy.
The story of dwarf employees who helped build B-24 bombers for Ford is told in “Little People with Big Jobs,” by Dave Elsila, published in the October 1997 issue of the United Auto Workers’ Solidarity magazine.
The early history of Little People of America is recounted in the organization’s twenty-fifth-anniversary souvenir book, published in 1982 and distributed to members at that year’s national conference in Reno, Nevada—the site of the first gathering of Billy Barty’s fledgling Midgets of America in 1957. Barty served as the writer and executive editor of the book.
Parts of Barnum’s 1855 autobiography, The Life of P. T. Barnum: Written by Himself, are online at the Disability History Museum, http://www.disabilitymuseum.org. If you search for the word midget, you will find nothing; but if you search for dwarf you will find several references to Charles Stratton. This is of particular significance because Stratton, who as a growth-hormone-deficient dwarf had the same proportions as an average-size person, fits the classic definition of midget. This clearly shows that the M-word was not in use at that time.
Robert Bogdan discusses the words dwarf and midget in the context of circus and sideshow performers in his book Freak Show (cited on page 284).
Angela Muir Van Etten’s autobiography is Dwarfs Don’t Live in Doll Houses (Adaptive Living, 1988).
Dr. Steven Kopits was profiled in a cover story in the Washington Post Magazine on December 9, 1984, titled “Dr. Steven Kopits: The Little People’s God,” by Brad Lemley, with photographs by Margaret Thomas. Kopits was a devout Catholic, and the title was a source of some irritation to him, according to his brother, George Kopits, who eulogized him on June 22, 2002. “He resented the well-meaning label on the cover of the Washington Post characterizing him as the ‘God of the Little People,’” George Kopits said. “Steven knew well the difference between God and surgeons . . . Indeed, he often declared that he was acting merely as an instrument of Divine Providence.” George Kopits’s eulogy can be found at the Web site of the Little People’s Research Fund, an organization begun by Steven Kopits, at http://www.lprf.org.
In addition to interviewing Dr. Michael Ain and observing him as he worked on two separate occasions, I also consulted two media profiles: “Aiming High,” by Melissa Hendricks, with photographs by Mike Ciesielski, published by Johns Hopkins Magazine in April 1999; and “The Doctor Who Almost Wasn’t,” broadcast by the ABC news show 20/20 on November 19, 1999, reported by Dr. Tim Johnson and produced by Callie Crossley.
Erving Goffman’s Stigma is cited on page 288.
Joan Hawkins’s essay “‘One of Us’: Tod Browning’s Freaks” is included in Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body, edited by Rosemarie Garland Thomson (New York University Press, 1996).
I found three pieces helpful to my understanding of De eso no se habla (“I Don’t Want to Talk About It”): an untitled review by Karen Jaehne in the Winter 1994 issue of Film Quarterly; a profile of the director, Maria Luisa Bemberg, headlined “Political Subtext in a Fairy Tale from a Feminist,” by Peter Brunette, published in the New York Times on September 25, 1994; and a review of the film, headlined “Recognizing People Who Have the Courage to Be Different,” by Janet Maslin, published in the New York Times on September 30, 1994.
The People magazine story on Gillian Mueller, “Long on Courage,” by Kim Hubbard and Giovanna Breu, with photographs by Mimi Cotter, was published on February 17, 1992. Mueller and her limb-lengthening surgery have been written about on many occasions over the years. As I am something of a connoisseur of media excess, my favorite headline, which Mueller showed me in a scrapbook in Dr. Dror Paley’s office, is “Tragic Gillian,” from the Globe, a supermarket tabloid.
Ralph Keyes wrote about discrimination against short people in The Height of Your Life (Little Brown, 1980). I also consulted Leslie F. Martel
and Henry B. Biller’s Stature and Stigma: The Biopsychological Development of Short Males (Lexington Books, 1987).
The study of self-esteem and quality of life is titled Living with Achondroplasia in an Average-Sized World: An Assessment of Quality of Life, by Sarah E. Gollust, Richard E. Thompson, Holly C. Gooding, and Barbara B. Biesecker.
The study of how achondroplastic adults perceive their physical and mental health is titled “Functional Health Status of Adults with Achondroplasia,” by Nizar N. Mahomed, Mark Spellmann, and Michael J. Goldberg. It was published in the June 16, 1998, issue of the American Journal of Medical Genetics (volume 78, issue 1).
One of the best lay explanations of limb-lengthening is included in an article titled “Up with People,” by David Berreby, published by The New Republic on April 29, 1996. Other articles I found tended to be too technical, too old to be reliable, or both. However, the methods used by Dr. Dror Paley and Dr. John Herzenberg at their International Center for Limb Lengthening, in Baltimore, are explained in great detail on their Web site, http://www.limblengthening.org.
The Little People of America medical-advisory board’s statement on limb-lengthening, Gillian Mueller’s essay, and other resources on the procedure can be found in the LPA Online Library at http://www.lpaonline.org/resources_library.html.
There are many books on ADHD, most of which either passionately advocate the use of medication or are aflame with dire warnings against its use. By contrast, Dr. Lawrence H. Diller’s Running on Ritalin: A Physician Reflects on Children, Society, and Performance in a Pill (Bantam Books, 1998) takes a restrained, balanced approach. I also first learned about central-auditory-processing disorder in Running on Ritalin.
When the Brain Can’t Hear: Unraveling the Mystery of Auditory Processing Disorders, by Teri James Bellis (Pocket Books, 2002), is a good guide to this subject. Also helpful is “Central Auditory Processing Disorder: When Is Evaluation Referral Indicated?” by Sandra Cleveland, the Northeastern University audiologist who was in charge of Becky’s evaluation. That article was published in the October 1997 issue of The ADHD Report. It is also available online at http://www.ldonline.org/ld_ indepth/process_deficit/adhdreport_capd.html.
A profile of Anthony Soares was published by the Columbia News Service, a student news agency sponsored by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, on February 22, 2002. The piece, titled “Politician Puts His Mind to Bigger Issues,” by Brett Tomlinson, is online at http://www.jrn.columbia.edu/studentwork/cns/2002-02-14/57.asp.
The controversy over Steve Vento, a dwarf who worked in a Mexican restaurant by serving chips and salsa from a sombrero on top of his head, was written about by Chris Lydgate in the weekly newspaper Willamette Week. Lydgate’s article, headlined “Dwarf vs. Dwarf: The Little People of America Want Respect—and They’re Fighting Each Other to Get It,” was published on June 30, 1999, on the eve of LPA’s annual conference, which was held that year in nearby Portland, Oregon.
Armistead Maupin’s novel Maybe the Moon was published by Harper-Collins in 1992. He spoke of his relationship with the late Tamara De Treaux in an interview with London’s Sunday Mail. The article, titled “E.T. Dwarf Finds Fame . . . at Last,” was written by Janice Turner, and was published on February 28, 1993. Maupin also discussed his friendship with De Treaux at the LPA national conference in Denver in 1995. I was able to view a videotape of his talk.
The discovery of the genetic mutation that causes achondroplasia was announced in the scientific journal Cell on July 29, 1994. The article, titled “Mutations in the Transmembrane Domain of FGFR3 Cause the Most Common Genetic Form of Dwarfism, Achondroplasia,” was written by Rita Shiang, Leslie M. Thompson, Ya-Zhen Zhu, Deanna M. Church, Thomas J. Fielder, Maureen Bocian, Sara T. Winokur, and John J. Wasmuth. It is, as you might imagine, completely impenetrable to the lay reader, including this one.
A November 5, 1994, article in Science News titled “Beyond the Genome: The Ethics of DNA Testing,” by Kathy A. Fackelmann, discusses several ethical dilemmas regarding prenatal screening, including a hypothetical achondroplastic couple who had informed their doctor that they would choose abortion if they learned their child would not be a dwarf. In April 2000, the Journal of Medical Ethics, in an article titled “Disability, Gene Therapy, and Eugenics—a Challenge to John Harris,” by Solveig Magnus Reindal, discussed another hypothetical achondroplastic couple, this one wishing to implant an achondroplastic embryo via in vitro fertilization. “Is it defensible,” Reindal asks, “for a doctor to override the wishes of the couple and implant the embryos without achondroplasia rather than those with achondroplasia?” To which the obvious answer would seem to be: “Of course not.”
The study showing that two percent of achondroplastic couples would consider abortion if they learned their child would not be a dwarf is titled “Issues Surrounding Prenatal Testing for Achondroplasia,” by Holly C. Gooding, Karina Boehm, Richard Thompson, Don Hadley, Clair Francomano, and Barbara Bowles Biesecker. I have not seen their unpublished manuscript, but their findings were reported in an article titled “Unintended Messages: The Ethics of Teaching Genetic Dilemmas,” by Holly Gooding, Benjamin Wilfond, Karina Boehm, and Barbara Bowles Biesecker, which was published in the March-April 2002 issue of the Hastings Center Report.
Adrienne Asch discusses her views on selective abortion in Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, edited by Erik Parens and Asch (Georgetown University Press, 2000). I draw from the introductory essay, which she wrote with Parens, titled “The Disability Rights Critique of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Reflections and Recommendations,” and from an essay she wrote by herself titled “Why I Haven’t Changed My Mind about Prenatal Diagnosis: Reflections and Refinements.”
Peter Singer’s views on infanticide are laid out in astoundingly graphic detail in Should the Baby Live? The Problem of Handicapped Infants (Oxford University Press, 1985), which he co-wrote with Helga Kuhse. At one point they write, “Quite often a defect which would have warranted abortion during pregnancy is not discovered until birth. Has the situation then changed so critically that it is now horrific to contemplate ending a life which three months previously could have been ended with little controversy?” I think most normal people would say, “Well, uh, yes.”
Michael Specter’s understated but devastating profile of Singer, “The Dangerous Philosopher,” appeared in the New Yorker on September 6, 1999.
Dorothy C. Wertz presented the findings of her study on attitudes toward disability in an essay titled “Drawing Lines: Notes for Policymakers,” which was published in the book Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, cited above.
Little People of America’s views on genetic testing are spelled out in “Do We Really Want This? Little People of America Inc. Comes to Terms with Genetic Testing,” by Ruth E. Ricker (1995), and in an article titled “Little People of America: Position Statement on Genetic Discoveries in Dwarfism” (1996). Both are available in the LPA Online Library, at http://www.lpaonline.org/resources_library.html.
Gregory Stock’s book Redesigning Humans was published by Houghton Mifflin in 2002.
Clair Francomano wrote about the genetics of achondroplasia in “Clinical Implications of Basic Research: The Genetic Basis of Dwarfism,” published in the New England Journal of Medicine on January 5, 1995.
An excellent introduction to the science of genetics is Matt Ridley’s Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters (Perennial, 2000).
The link between cadaver-derived human growth hormone, or hGH, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has been widely reported. I relied on an article by David Davis, titled “Cut Short,” that appeared on the Web site of Mother Jones magazine on March 23, 2000. The article can be found at http://www.motherjones.com/news_wire/short.html.
The possible link between hGH and cancer was reported by NBC News correspondent Robert Bazell on July 25, 2002, and by the BBC on July 26, 2002 (news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2150953.stm).
Simon Mawer’s novel Mendel’s Dwarf (cited on page 285) is the story of Benedict Lambert, a geneticist with achondroplasia who is a descendant of the pioneering geneticist Gregor Mendel. Mawer offers an extensive discussion of the history of the eugenics movement and the discovery of the mutation that causes achondroplasia that is entirely accurate except for one large fictional conceit: he attributes the discovery to Lambert rather than to John Wasmuth and his colleagues. Mendel’s Dwarf is not only a remarkable piece of fiction, but it helped inform my views on eugenics and science as well.
Kurt Vonnegut’s novel Cat’s Cradle was originally published in 1963 by Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
John Wolin wrote about his first Little People of America conference in an article titled “Dwarf Like Me,” which was published in Tropic magazine, part of the Miami Herald, on January 24, 1993.
Erving Goffman’s book Stigma is cited on page 288.
Although I did not attend LPA’s 1995 national conference, I was able to listen to an audiotape of Len Sawisch’s presentation.
Angela Muir Van Etten’s autobiography, Dwarfs Don’t Live in Doll Houses, is cited on page 289.
Cara Egan’s master’s thesis is titled LPA, Inc.: Coming of Age in the Policy Arena. She researched it and wrote it while a student at the School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. Egan also wrote a “My Turn” essay for Newsweek titled “The Seven Dwarfs and I,” published on September 9, 1991. It was one of the first pieces on dwarfism that Barbara and I ever read following Becky’s being diagnosed with achondroplasia.
Matt Roloff’s autobiography, co-written with Tracy Sumner, is Against Tall Odds: Being a David in a Goliath World (Multnomah Publishers, 1999). He maintains his own Web site, which contains a considerable amount of information about his farm and theme park, at http://www.mattroloff.com.